# Mathematics

### Mathematics/Mathématiques 8

The course will incorporate the following mathematical processes: communicating ideas, connecting concepts, visualizing concepts through pictures, mental mathematics and estimation, problem solving, justifying thoughts, and using technology to explore ideas. Manipulatives such as cuisenaire rods and algebra tiles will often be used to help students make sense of concepts. In general, they do not make “getting the answer” easier. The goal is to develop a deep understanding through manpulatives and then move to abstract routines that allow the answer to be calculated more efficiently.

Topics include proportion, operations with fractions, the Pythagorean theorem, probability and statistics, and tessellations.

### Mathematics/Mathématiques 9

This course is designed to consolidate and extend topics introduced in Mathematics 8. Topics include operations with rational numbers, square roots and exponents, polynomials and algebra, linear relations, geometry, and statistics. At the end of this course, students will be prepared for Foundations of Mathematics and Pre- Calculus 10 or Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 10.

### Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 10

This oprion is designed to provide students with the mathematical understanding and critical-thinking skills identified for the entry into the majority of trades and for direct entry into the work force. Topics include understanding and apply the metric and imperial systems to the measurement of 2-D and 3-D objects, geometry, trigonometry, and the fundamentals of income, spending, and debt. This course has a mandatory provincial exam worth 20% of their final course mark. At the end of this course, students are prepared to take Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 11.

### Foundations of Mathematics and Pre- Calculus 10

This course is designed to provide students with mathematical understandings and critical thinking skills identified for post secondary studies in both the arts and the sciences. Topics include surface area and volume of 3-D objects, applying trigonometric ratios to right triangles, irrational numbers, powers involving integral and rational exponents, polynomials, coordinate geometry with linear relations, system of linear equations, and function notation. At the end of this course, students are prepared for Apprenticeship and Workplace 11, Foundations of Mathematics 11, and/or Pre- Calculus 11.

### Pre-Calculus 11

This Pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills required for entry into post-secondary programs like business, science, engineering, and human kinetics.  Topics include college algebra, advanced trigonometry, Relations and Functions, and analytic geometry of two and three dimensions. Students experience a thorough analysis of all elementary functions and curve-sketching.  Students who have successfully mastered the course content may register for Pre-Calculus 12.

### Foundations of Mathematics 11

This Pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills required for entry into liberal arts and humanities programs at the post-secondary level. Course topics include Measurement, Geometry, Trigonometry, Logic Reasoning, Statistics, Relations and Functions, and Mathematics Research Project. Students who have succesfully mastered the course content may register for Foundations of Mathematics 12.

### Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 11

This Pathway satisfies the Ministry’s graduation requirement. It is designed to provide students with the mathematical understanding and critical-thinking skills required for entry into the majority of trades and for direct entry into the work force.  Course topics include Measurement, Geometry, Finance, Algebra, and Statistics.  Students who have succesfully mastered the course content may register for Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 12.

### Math Honors Courses

Students may apply to Math Honors course at each grade level.  The learning outcomes, curriculum, and textbook at each level will remain the same, but will include significant enrichment supplements based on the Waterloo Mathematics Competitions.  Students who complete the Honors pathway often proceed to Advanced Placement (AP) courses.

Students are required to participate in the Waterloo Contest in their respective grade level in addition to their formal application.  A combination of the student’s Waterloo mark and class mark from the previous year will be used to determine placement.

### Elective Courses

Calculus 12 – Introduction to differential and integral calculus. This is an excellent course for students who are planning on entering fields of study that require a calculus course at university. This course covers the content of a first semester university calculus course. Students are able to take this course concurrently with Principles of Math 12.

AP Calculus 12 (AB) – Similar content to Calculus 12, but covered in more depth and at a faster pace. All students in this course will prepare to write the AP exam in May. Students are strongly encouraged to have completed Principles of Mathematics 12 prior to taking this course as topics from that course are used in AP Calculus.

AP Statistics 12 – This is an introductory course in statistics and covers similar content to a first semester university statistics course. This course will provide an excellent background for students who may be taking statistics at university. Students should have a B or better in Math 11P.

### Course Descriptions: Mathematics Pathways

Beginning in grade 10, students must choose one of the following 3 pathways. Each pathway has a different focus . Students must complete a mathematics course at the grade 11 level in order to graduate. Changing pathways is normally not possible. Students with less than a C+ in their mathematics course should consult with their teacher regarding placement for the following year.

Mathematics Flowchart

Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics

This pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills identified for entry into the majority of trades and for direct entry into the work force. Topics include algebra, geometry, measurement, number, statistics and probability.

Foundations of Mathematics

This pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills identified for post-secondary studies in programs that do not require the study of calculus. Topics include financial mathematics, geometry, measurement, number, logical reasoning, relations and functions, statistics and probability.

Pre-Calculus

This pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills identified for entry into post-secondary programs that require the study of calculus. Topics include algebra and number, measurement, relations and functions, trigonometry and permutations, combinations and the binomial theorem.

All three pathways are designed to provide students with mathematical understandings and critical thinking skills. It is the choice of topics through which those skills are developed that varies among the pathways. The goal of all pathways is to provide prerequisite skills, knowledge and attitudes for specific career choices while still proving mathematically rigorous courses required by BC graduates.